Article date: 1992/5/1
PubMed ID: 1375317
Journal name: Molecular pharmacology (ISSN: 0026-895X)
The glycine site on the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of receptors for the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate is a potential target for the development of neuroprotective drugs. We report here two chemical series of glycine site antagonists derived from kynurenic acid (KYNA), with greatly improved potency and selectivity. Disubstitution with chlorine or bromine in the 5- and 7-positions of KYNA increased affinity for [3H]glycine binding sites in rat cortex/hippocampus P2 membranes, with a parallel increase of potency for antagonism of NMDA-evoked responses in the rat cortical wedge preparation. The optimal compound was 5-I,7-Cl-KYNA, with an IC50 for [3H]glycine binding of 29 nM and an apparent Kb in the cortical wedge preparation of 0.41 microM. Reduction of the right-hand ring of 5,7-diCl-KYNA reduced affinity by 10-fold, but this was restored by substitution in the 4-position with the trans-phenylamide and further improved in the trans-benzylamide. The optimal compound was the transphenylurea (L-689,560), with an IC50 of 7.4 nM and an apparent Kb of 0.13 microM. Both series of compounds displayed a high degree of selectivity for the glycine site, having IC50 values of greater than 10 microM versus radioligand binding to the glutamate recognition sites of NMDA, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA), and kainate receptors and the strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor. Selectivity versus AMPA receptor-mediated responses was also apparent in the rat cortical wedge and in patch-clamp recordings of cortical neurons in culture. Experiments using [3H]dizocilpine (MK-801) binding indicated that 5,7-diBr-KYNA, 5,7-diCl-KYNA, 5-I,7-Cl-KYNA, and L-689,560 all behaved as full antagonists and were competitive with glycine. Patch-clamp recordings of cortical neurons in culture also indicated that NMDA-induced currents were antagonized by competition for the glycine site, and gave no evidence for partial agonist activity. pKi values for 5,7-diBr-KYNA and L-689,560 in these experiments were 7.2 and 7.98, respectively, similar to the affinities of these compounds in the glycine binding assay. The high affinity and selectivity of these new derivatives make them useful tools to investigate the function of the glycine site on the NMDA receptor.
Author List: Foster A C, Kemp J A, Leeson P D, Grimwood S, Donald A E, Marshall G R, Priestley T, Smith J D, Carling R W
Publication Types: Journal Article
Substances mentioned in the article: Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate; Tritium; Ibotenic Acid; Dizocilpine Maleate; alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid; Kynurenic Acid; Kainic Acid; Glycine;
Mesh terms: Animals; Binding Sites; Brain/metabolism; Cell Membrane/metabolism; Cells, Cultured; Cerebral Cortex/metabolism; Dizocilpine Maleate/metabolism; Evoked Potentials/drug effects; Glycine/metabolism; Hippocampus/metabolism; Ibotenic Acid/analogs & derivatives; Kainic Acid/metabolism; Kinetics; Kynurenic Acid/analogs & derivatives; Male; Neurons/drug effects; Radioligand Assay; Rats; Rats, Inbred Strains; Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/drug effects; Structure-Activity Relationship; Tritium; alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid;