Article date: 1992/11/1
PubMed ID: 1479434
Journal name: Journal of neurophysiology (ISSN: 0022-3077)
1. The Jamaican mustached bat uses a biosonar signal (pulse) with eight major components: four harmonics each consisting of a long constant frequency (CF1-4) component followed by a short frequency-modulated (FM1-4) component. While flying, the bat adjusts the frequency of its pulse so as to maintain the CF2 of the Doppler-shifted echo at a frequency to which its cochlea is very sharply tuned. This Doppler shift (DS) compensation likely is mediated or influenced by the Doppler-shifted CF (DSCF) processing area of the primary auditory cortex, which only represents frequencies in the range of echo CF2s (60.6 to 62.3 kHz when the “resting” frequency of the CF2 is 61.0 kHz). 2. We trained four bats to discriminate between different trains of paired tone bursts that mimicked a bat's pulse CF2 and the accompanying echo CF2. The frequency of these CF2s ranged between 61.0 and 64.0 kHz. A discriminated shock avoidance procedure response was employed using a leg flexion. For one stimulus, the S+, the pulse and echo CF2s were the same frequency (delta f = 0, i.e., no Doppler shift). A leg flexion during the S+ turned off both the S+ and the scheduled shock. For a second stimulus, the S-, the echo CF2 was 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, or 2.0 kHz higher than the pulse CF2. A delta f of 0.05 kHz was a frequency difference of 0.08%. No shock followed the S-, and leg flexions had no consequences. Correct responses consisted of a leg flexion during the S+ and no flexion during the S-; these responses were added together to compute the percentage of correct responses. When a bat correctly responded at better than 75% for all the delta f s, muscimol, a potent agonist of gamma-aminobutyric acid, was bilaterally applied to inactivate the DSCF area. Performance on each delta f discrimination was then measured. 3. Initial attempts to condition the bats to flex their legs to the CF tones mimicking part of the natural pulses and echoes failed. When broad-band noise bursts were substituted, however, the conditioned response was rapidly established. The noise band-width was gradually reduced and then replaced with the CF tones. Discrimination training with the tone burst trains then commenced. Throughout this procedure, the bats maintained their responding to the stimuli. The bats typically required approximately 20-30 sessions to perform consistently (> or = 75% correct responses) a discrimination involving a 2 kHz delta f.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Author List: Riquimaroux H, Gaioni S J, Suga N
Publication Types: Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Substances mentioned in the article: Muscimol; gamma-Aminobutyric Acid;
Mesh terms: Acoustic Stimulation; Animals; Auditory Cortex/anatomy & histology; Brain Mapping; Chiroptera/physiology; Discrimination (Psychology)/physiology; Doppler Effect; Electrophysiology; Electroshock; Female; Hearing/physiology; Injections; Leg/physiology; Male; Muscimol/administration & dosage; Somatosensory Cortex; gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/physiology;