Article date: 1989/7/1
PubMed ID: 2753001
Journal name: Epilepsia (ISSN: 0013-9580)
This study better defines the way in which the thalamus controls expression of experimental generalized seizures. The effects of small intrathalamic injections of the direct GABA agonist muscimol on the thresholds of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures and on spontaneous behavior were determined in the rat and compared with the effects of injections of gamma-vinyl-GABA (GVG), an irreversible inhibitor of GABA transaminase. Muscimol injections produced neuronal inhibition in a relatively small area of thalamus, whereas GVG injections produced inhibition in a much larger area. Muscimol injections in the midline thalamus in the vicinity of the paraventricular, paratenial, interanteromedial, intermediodorsal, and central medial nuclei facilitated PTZ myoclonic and clonic seizures and also produced sedation. These effects on seizure thresholds were attributable both to a lower PTZ threshold dose for initiation of electroencephalographic (EEG) seizure activity and to an increased probability of this EEG activity being expressed as behavioral seizures. Midline injections located more posteriorly in the thalamus also inhibited tonic seizures. Muscimol injections placed laterally, dorsally, or ventrally to this midline thalamic region had much less effect on behavior or seizures. In contrast, GVG injections in the anterior medial thalamus elevated the threshold for all PTZ seizure types and for associated EEG seizure activity but had little effect on spontaneous behavior. These findings demonstrate the existence of an important seizure regulatory system in the midline of the thalamus and a direct anatomic link between the mechanisms for regulating arousal and seizure production which may help explain the association between sleep and seizure facilitation in humans.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Author List: Miller J W, Hall C M, Holland K D, Ferrendelli J A
Publication Types: Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Substances mentioned in the article: Aminocaproates; Anticonvulsants; Muscimol; 4-Aminobutyrate Transaminase; Vigabatrin; Pentylenetetrazole;
Mesh terms: 4-Aminobutyrate Transaminase/antagonists & inhibitors; Aminocaproates/administration & dosage; Animals; Anticonvulsants/administration & dosage; Arousal/physiology; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Electroencephalography; Female; Muscimol/administration & dosage; Pentylenetetrazole; Rats; Rats, Inbred Strains; Seizures/chemically induced; Thalamic Nuclei/drug effects; Thalamus/drug effects; Vigabatrin;