Influence of pharmacological manipulation of inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitter systems on seizure behavior in the Mongolian gerbil.

Article date: 1985/4/1

PubMed ID: 2858579

Journal name: The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics (ISSN: 0022-3565)


The purpose of this paper was to study the relationship between different neurotransmitter systems and seizure susceptibility in Mongolian gerbils with genetically determined epilepsy. In these animals, generalized tonic-clonic seizures were induced by stimulation with a blast of compressed air. A variety of drugs that specifically manipulate inhibitory or excitatory neurotransmitter systems proved capable of dose dependently blocking these seizures, i.e., the anticholinergic drug biperiden (ED50 12 mg/kg i.p.), the excitatory amino acid antagonist (+/-)-2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid (120 mg/kg), the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists muscimol (0.66 mg/kg), 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo(5,4-c) pyridine-3-ol (1.3 mg/kg), progabide (50 mg/kg) and its acidic metabolite SL 75102 (45 mg/kg), the GABA aminotransferase inhibitors aminooxyacetic acid (0.9 mg/kg), gamma-acetylenic GABA (2.1 mg/kg) and ethanolamine-O-sulfate (1000 mg/kg), the GABA uptake inhibitor (-)-nipecotic acid ethyl ester (21 mg/kg), the dopamine agonist apomorphine (approximately 5 mg/kg), the dopamine precursor 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (34 mg/kg), and the alpha-adrenoceptor agonists clonidine (0.38 mg/kg) and xylazine (approximately 10 mg/kg). The anticonvulsant effect of 3,4-dihydroxyl-L-phenylalanine was not significantly affected by pretreatment with the dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibitors disulfiram and diethyldithiocarbamate, thus strongly indicating that 3,4-dihydroxyl-L-phenylalanine was acting through increase in dopamine rather than noradrenaline levels in the brain. The (+)-isomer of nipecotic acid ethyl ester, the glycineamide derivative milacemide, the indirect 5-hydroxytryptamine agonist fenfluramine and the 5-hydroxytryptamine antagonist ketanserin exerted no anticonvulsant action. The 5-hydroxytryptamine precursor L-5-hydroxytryptophan and the dopamine agonist lisuride were only weakly active but exerted pronounced side effects in the animals. Weak anticonvulsant effects were also determined for atropine, the noradrenaline precursor DL-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine and the excitatory amino acid antagonist (+/-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid. Comparison of anticonvulsant potencies of the various drugs in gerbils with potencies reported in other genetic animal models of epilepsy, such as audiogenic seizure-susceptible mice, indicated that drugs that increase GABA and dopamine levels in the brain are strikingly more effective in gerbils than in other species in blocking generalized seizures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Author List: Löscher W

Publication Types: Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Substances mentioned in the article: Adrenergic alpha-Agonists; Amino Acids; Anticonvulsants; Serotonin Antagonists; Fenfluramine; Serotonin; gamma-Aminobutyric Acid; Atropine; Carbidopa; Glycine; Dopamine; Norepinephrine;

Mesh terms: Adrenergic alpha-Agonists/pharmacology; Air; Amino Acids/pharmacology; Animals; Anticonvulsants; Atropine/pharmacology; Carbidopa/pharmacology; Disease Models, Animal; Dopamine/pharmacology; Epilepsy/physiopathology; Female; Fenfluramine/pharmacology; Gerbillinae; Glycine/pharmacology; Male; Mice; Norepinephrine/pharmacology; Serotonin/pharmacology; Serotonin Antagonists; Species Specificity; gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/pharmacology;

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